Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) in kodok locality, upper Nile state, Republic of South Sudan
Author(s): Venancio A Okic, Nabil HH Bashir and Yousif OH Assad
Abstract: Anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) consist of a large number of species. The distribution (Mapping) of malaria vectors is important for strategic planning and control strategies. Malaria risk within communities is usually associated with exposure to its vectors inside households (HHs) and necessarily with the existing larval habitats near the HHs. Studies were conducted from April 2020 to March 2022 in 4 areas/Hai of the Kodok locality (KL), Upper Nile State (UNS), Republic of South Sudan (RSS), to determine the indoor resting density and its seasonal changes, in addition to the number of Anopheles and other mosquitoes in a given room by adopting the pyrethrum spray sheet (PSS) collection technique for adults (80 HHs) and the dipping method for larval collection from 8 potential breeding sites. A total of 63,644 adults were collected and identified as follows: A. gambiae S.S. (68%), A. arabiensis (26%) and other mosquitoes (6%). The density / HH in the rainy- season (April -Oct.) varied between HHs; viz. A. gambiae s.s. (52-67) and A. arabiensis (20-28). In the dry -season (Nov. to March) the numbers were 2-12 and 0-5, respectively. A total of 7,704 larvae was collected, of which A. gambiae formed 88% and the other mosquitoes formed 12%, in the inspected breeding sites (384 visits). It is concluded that several Anopheles species are present in KL. A. gambiae is the dominant species during both dry -and wet –seasons. Densities were higher in the wet- than the dry-season. This information must be seriously considered during the vector control (VC) programs.