Vectors that spread malaria: introduction to the microbiome-science of mosquitoes
Author(s): KR Padma, KR Don, B Dinesh and D Karthikeyan
Abstract: Amongst six main mosquito species, Anopheles minimus responsible for transmitting malaria in India. Anopheles minimus is predominant in India particularly northeastern regions and is most accountable for focal infection outbursts marked by an increase in Plasmodium falciparum diseases, and further deaths that can be directly linked to them. According to genetic analysis, Anopheles minimus (formerly species A) is the most common species occurring in India, involving the north-eastern provinces and the East-central Odisha state, out of the three species that make up the Minimus Complex, which is distributed throughout Asia. It is documented throughout the year and explains perennial transmission as shown by records of sporozoite infections. This species has been observed spawning year-round in slow-moving seepage water streams. It is also primarily endophilic and endophagic. Malaria is still a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, especially in tropical areas. It is a vector-borne infectious disease. The protozoan parasite Plasmodium, which causes malaria, is spread via the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes carrying the infection. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying are the major methods used in the control interventions aimed at mosquito vectors that have shown great success over the past 20 years (IRS). Unfortunately, natural mosquito populations are developing resistance to the conventional pesticides now employed in public health, which is impeding the efficacy of the existing vector management measures over the long run. Therefore, it appears vital to enhance vector control strategies through the creation of novel, environmentally friendly methods in order to reach the objective of eliminating malaria. Our review article provides background for describing the biology, information gaps, and possible public health danger of Anopheles viruses.