Plant-based natural products are preferred over synthetic insecticides because natural products are eco-friendly and much less prone to the development of resistance. This has necessitated research for the development of the eco-friendly, biodegradable indigenous method for the control of vectors. Mosquito larvicidal efficacy of crude and ethanol extracts of the leaf, bark, root, and fruit of Asparagus setaceus
(Asparagaceae) against Aedes aegypti
was evaluated in the present study. Phytochemical screening of all the plant parts was also done.
Crude and ethanol extracts of different parts of A. setaceus showed efficient larvicidal properties against Ae. aegypti in the following descending order fruit> root> bark> leaf. Fruit ethanolic extract exhibited the highest mortality (100%) against 1st and 2nd instars larvae at 24 hours of exposure. The result of the three-way factorial ANOVA of an ethanolic extract with different plant parts, different time intervals, and different instars revealed a significant difference in larval mortality (P<0.05). Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannin, and flavonoids. The isolated bioactive fraction possesses functional groups as aldehyde, alkane, alcohol, and keto.
A. setaceus indeed has remarkable mosquito larvicidal activity and can be used as eco-friendly insecticides in near future.