Malarial parasite belongs toprotozoan family causes malaria in vertebrates including human being, which is transmitted by the bite of infected female anopheles mosquitoes considered an important tropical disease in terms of morbidity and mortality. In endemic and resource poor regions it poses diagnostic challenge. The present study was conducted in Malaria patients presented at a tertiary care Centre to evaluate and observe the diagnostic performance of Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in comparison with microscopy.
Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted for a period of one year in which purposive sample were included from the patients visiting the outpatient department as well as all the those admitted in inpatient departments and intensive care units. Blood samples of 146 clinical suspects of malaria was assessed for RDT/ELISA against microscopy as the gold standard.
Results: Out of146 samples from clinical suspects 73 were positive by microscopy and 73 negative, whereas by ELISA 70 true positive and 68 true negative was found respectively. By Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) true positive was found to be 67 and true negative 63.As compared to microscopy, ELISA was found to be 95.9% sensitive, 93.2% specific whereas RDT was found to be 91.8% sensitive and 86.3% specific.
Conclusion: Detection rate among microscopically positive malaria cases was found to be higher for ELISA as compared to RDT. Though RDT had a lower sensitivity as well as specificity as compared to microscopy yet owing to ease of performing the test, rapid outcomes and its ability to differentiate between falciparum and vivax species, RDT may be recommended as the initial diagnostic tool, however, microscopy for malarial parasite identification is still considered a gold standard method.