Vol. 2, Issue 3, Part A (2015)
Insecticide resistance to Anopheles spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Nigeria: A review
Author(s): Balarabe Rabi u Mohammed, Yayo M Abdulsalam, Yusuf Y Deeni
Abstract: Monitoring of insecticide resistance is indispensable to acquire comparable baseline data on insecticide resistance. Hence, there is need to understand its past and present status. An investigation was carried out on the insecticide resistance to Anopheles spp. mosquitoes in Nigeria which is on the increase and spreads across Africa. Various methods of detecting insecticide resistance were reported. The studies showed existence of DDT resistance and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) a major vector of malaria in Nigeria. Resistance to permethrin was recorded in all the geographical zones but highest levels were found in the forest savannah, Mosaic and Guinea savanna. Similar results were obtained in Ghana where resistance in all classes of insecticides was recorded except organophosphates. In Cameroun, DDT and permethrin also showed high levels of resistance. A number of causes of resistance were highlighted and factors influencing their development were also enumerated. Available methods of detecting insecticide resistance were discussed. Various measures for the management of resistance in different continents of the world were also highlighted. Non insecticidal methods of mosquito control which include the use of repellant plants, environmental management, biological control and mechanical controls were enumerated. Recommendations were also made to the Nigerian Government to incorporate some of the successful techniques applied in other parts of the world. The study has implications for the control of mosquito populations and the spread of human, livestock and poultry diseases.
A map of Nigeria showing the six ecological Zones. Dark orchid represents Sahel savanna, Yellow represents Sudan savanna, Royal blue represents Guinea savanna, Pink represents Forest mosaic, Blue represents Forest whilst Green represents Mangrove. Adopted and modified from 
How to cite this article:
Balarabe Rabi u Mohammed, Yayo M Abdulsalam, Yusuf Y Deeni. Insecticide resistance to Anopheles spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Nigeria: A review. Int J Mosq Res 2015;2(3):56-63.